In 5th grade math, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions); (2) extending division to 2-digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations; and (3) developing understanding of volume.
Fifth-grade ELA places a strong emphasis on reading comprehension. Students are expected to engage with a variety of texts, from fiction and non-fiction to poetry and informational articles. They are challenged to extract key information, identify main ideas, analyze characters and their development, make inferences, and draw connections between texts. This expectation encourages students to think critically about the material they encounter and to delve deeper into the layers of meaning within the text.